Table of Contents
Generic Types of Cement
Generic Types of Cement: Cements have a variety of properties and features that vary according to their chemical composition. Cement may be made to possess a variety of properties by altering the fineness of the grinding or the oxide composition.
Historically, continuous attempts have been made to develop various types of cement suitable for a variety of circumstances by varying the oxide composition and fineness of grinding. With widespread use of cement under greatly differing conditions, it was discovered that the forms of cement made solely by varying the relative proportions of the oxide compounds were insufficient. Attempts have been made to incorporate one or two additional new ingredients, referred to as additives, into the clinker during the grinding process, or to use completely different simple raw materials in the manufacture of cement.
The addition of chemicals, changes in chemical composition, and the use of diverse raw materials have resulted in the availability of many forms of cement to meet the basic needs of the building industry. This chapter will discuss the properties and applications of different types of cement. There are two types of cements: Portland cements and non-Portland cements. The differentiation is mostly focused on manufacturing processes. The below are the most often used Portland and non-Portland cements: Additionally, these elements are assigned an Indian standard specification number.
Types of Cement
(a) Ordinary Portland Cement
(b) Rapid Hardening Cement
(c) Extra Rapid Hardening Cement
(d) Sulfate Resisting Cement
(e) Portland Slag Cement
(f) Quick Setting Cement
(g) Super Sulfated Cement
(h) Low Heat Cement
(j) Portland Pozzolana Cement
(k) Air Entraining Cement
(l) Colored Cement: White Cement
(m) Hydrophobic Cement
(n) Masonry Cement
(o) Expansive Cement
(p) Oil Well Cement
(q) Rediset Cement
(r) Concrete Sleeper grade Cement
(s) High Alumina Cement
(t) Very High Strength Cement
ASTM classifies cement into Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV, and Type V, as well as minor forms such as Type IS, Type IP, and Type IA IIA and IIIA.
For general concrete construction in which the special properties defined for Types II, III, IV, and V are not necessary (Ordinary Portland Cement).
To be used in general concrete construction that is subjected to mild sulfate activity or that requires moderate heat of hydration.
To be used when a high early strength is needed (Rapid Hardening Cement).
When a lower heat of hydration is needed (Low Heat Cement).
When a high level of sulfate resistance is needed (Sulfate Resisting Cement). Additionally, the ASTM standard includes IS cement. This is a near and uniform mix of type I Portland Cement and fine granulated slag. About 25% and 70% of the weight of Portland Blast-Furnace Slag Cement is slag.
This is a uniform mixture of Portland Cement (or Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement) and fine pozzolana, with the pozzolana content ranging between 15% and 40% of the overall cement weight.
Type IA, IIA and IIIA
There are cements of type I, II, or III that contain an air-entraining agent and are used in areas where air entrainment in concrete is required.