Stages of Building Construction: The most critical procedures of construction are the sequence of work to be followed in the construction of a building. Marking, excavation, concreting, brick masonry, roof laying, flooring, and finishing are the main building sequences. The sequences of building construction are examined in depth in this article.
Table of Contents
Workflows in the Construction Industry
1. Paper Work
Before the actual construction of a residential building could begin, there had to be some paperwork completed. Preparation of drawings, calculation of material costs, labor costs & contingencies, and acceptance of drawings from the City Development Authority are all part of the paper work.
2. Layout Markings
The approved design boundaries are first marked in the field, followed by a thorough cleaning of the ground both inside and outside the layout. The entire plan is then mapped out on the ground with precise dimensions and orientation.
In most cases, excavation is needed for the construction of wall foundations. Excavation should be done according to the lengths and widths specified in the drawings. For the base, appropriate machines are used to excavate the soil.
The following are the sub-works that make up the foundation work:
1. Compaction of the soil
The bottoms of the excavation pits are compacted with hand compactors and trimmed and dressed as required.
2. Plain concrete layer
To provide a stable foundation on which to tie the reinforcement and position the footing. Plain cement concrete ( mix 1:4:8 or 1:3:6) is laid in varying depths on compacted soil as required.
3. Reinforcement of the Footing
Reinforcement steel bars are bound together and mounted on the PCC to create a skeleton from which the concrete is poured and the column rods are removed.
4. Use of shutters
Shuttering is achieved according to the dimensions specified in the drawing to achieve properly formed concrete. It’s also done to keep the concrete from coming into contact with the ground.
5. Footing Concrete
Before beginning any concrete work, it is critical to check the foundation levels. There are some areas where the excavated depth marginally exceeds the actual depth, and vice versa. Concrete is poured according to the designs.
The depth of foundation ranges from 9” to 18”, but in most cases it is assumed to be 12”. The width of the base is kept the same as its depth.
5. Casting of Columns
Columns are cast by securing the shuttering structure and pouring concrete into the formwork. After 24 hours of casting and curing, the shuttering is normally removed.
6. Walls and their Construction
Many different materials are used to build walls, including brick, wood, precast concrete, and others. The foundation of the wall is built first, using concrete or size stone masonry, before the rest of the wall is built. The height of the walls is determined by the height of the floor. For doors, windows, and ventilators, necessary openings must be provided.
Building masonry construction is completed all at once, from foundation to roof. During masonry work, windows and doors are left open. The tops of openings are covered with reinforced cement concrete beams. As a result, the loads of structure above openings do not fall directly on the door frames.
After the masonry work is finished, the building’s roof slab is poured. Nowadays, reinforced cement concrete slabs are used for roofing. The thickness of the slab and the details of the reinforcement should be in accordance with the accepted drawings.
9. Work on Plastering
After 14 days of slab pouring, the form work is removed. The plastering process is now underway. Mortar ratios of 1:3 or 1:4 are often used for plaster work. The thickness of the plaster layer does not exceed 0.75 inch. Allow 7 days for the surface to cure. As a result, the plaster gains the necessary strength.
The internal walls of buildings are usually plastered, while the exterior walls are pointing. External walls should be plastered rather than pointing.
10. Fixing Doors and Windows
Wooden doors and windows have been used in the past. Steel and aluminum, on the other hand, are not a bad option. During masonry work, frames for wooden doors and windows are installed in the walls. After plastering, the panels are attached to the wall with hinges. After the paint job is finished, the steel and aluminum doors are mounted.
11. Electrical and Plumbing Works
To minimize damage, the required electrical and plumbing work is completed before the final finishing work, such as painting and tile laying.
12. Laying the Tiles
The majority of the tiles are used in the bathrooms and kitchen. The wall tiles are installed first, followed by the floor tiles. Granite, marble, tiles, and epoxy are also used in flooring projects.
Depending on the type of finish desired, painting can be done in a variety of ways. For a smooth finish, 1 coat of primer and 2 coats of water-based paint are applied, or 2 coats of putty and 2 coats of painting are applied. It is deferred for both outside and inside projects.
Aside from the above-mentioned services, other services are provided based on the needs of the customer and the design engineer.
- landscaping works
- False Ceiling
- Furniture Installation
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